3. Juli But what I can tell you is that Shoes made of human skin have remained one of my Wer auf schicke Goregrind-Metzgerhymnen irgendwo. Apr 1, Human Heart Dissection; this person died of congested heart failure. It is important to.. In the s, binding a book with your own dead skin made a. Jan. Ingram is not your average hero, he doesn't always win and that makes him human and believable. The film made of this book was changed in.
Writing about his visit to Bremen in Man sollte es wohl vor Schwein-Leder ansehen. This unusual binding, the like of which I had never before seen, seemed especially well adapted to this book, dedicated to more meditation about death.
You would take it for pig skin. During the French Revolution , there were rumours that a tannery for human skin had been established at Meudon outside Paris.
Surviving examples of human skin bindings have often been commissioned, performed, or collected by medical doctors, who have access to cadavers , sometimes those of executed criminals, such as the case of John Horwood in and the Red Barn Murder in The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh preserves a notebook bound in the skin of the murderer William Burke after his execution and subsequent public dissection by Professor Alexander Monro in What Lawrence Thompson called "the most famous of all anthropodermic bindings" is exhibited at the Boston Athenaeum , titled The Highwayman: It is by James Allen , who made his deathbed confession in and asked for a copy bound in his own skin to be presented to a man he once tried to rob and admired for his bravery.
The Newberry Library in Chicago owns an Arabic manuscript written in , with a handwritten note that it is bound in human skin, though "it is the opinion of the conservation staff that the binding material is not human skin, but rather highly burnished goat".
The National Library of Australia holds a book of 18th century poetry with the inscription "Bound in human skin" on the first page. The identification of human skin bindings has been attempted by examining the pattern of hair follicles , to distinguish human skin from that of other animals typically used for bookbinding, such as calf, sheep, goat, and pig.
This is a necessarily subjective test, made harder by the distortions in the process of treating leather for binding. Testing a DNA sample is possible in principle, but DNA can be destroyed when skin is tanned, it degrades over time, and it can be contaminated by human readers.
PMF can identify skin as belonging to a primate ; since monkeys were almost never used as a source of skin for bindings, this implies human skin.
The Historical Medical Library of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia owns five anthropodermic books, confirmed by peptide mass fingerprinting in ,  of which three were bound from the skin of one woman.
It is now known not to be bound in human skin but horse hide, or a mixture of horse and goatskin. Image for non-commercial use.
Book Bound in Human Skin. Preservation Lab Treatment Report and photographs. Binding decorated with skulls and crossbones . Harvard University , Francis A.
Countway Library of Medicine , PA University of Memphis , Ned R. The binding of books in human skin is also a common element within horror films and works of fiction.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Thompson, Religatum de Pelle Humana . Possible human skin binding in the Smithsonian Libraries. Panel with Latin inscription in the book: This section needs expansion.
You can help by adding to it. This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
These are almost exclusively terms which are not part of normal discourse and would be unknown to most people. Many are technical terms from specialized discourses.
Retrieved 25 August Smithsonian Libraries - Catalog. Retrieved 19 September Does the Smithsonian have any books bound in human skin in its collection?
Turning the Book Wheel: Retrieved 4 July Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. York, alias Burley Grove, the highwayman: Retrieved 25 August — via catalog.
Blockson, Catalogue of the Charles L. The De Vinne Press,  , exhibits pages Forty-four years as a bookbinder. Is it true the John Hay Library has books bound in human skin?
Retrieved April 3, The Preservation Lab Blog. Retrieved 22 January Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 17 September Rosenbloom [Megan Rosenbloom, member of the Anthropodermic Book Project ] says the Allen book has been verified as definitely bound in human flesh.
An essay on the danger of interments in cities New-York: Human hair follicles also go through cycles of activity. After a period of growth, the hair becomes clubbed, rather than cylindrical, in shape.
Fibrous rootlets anchor the club to the surrounding follicular tissue. While forming the club, the follicle shrivels up, the lower part becoming largely dissipated.
Follicles remain dormant for variable periods of time. When they become active again, they reconstruct a bulb that manufactures a new hair.
As the new hair works its way to the surface, the club hair is loosened from its moorings and shed. The activity of the hair follicles in the scalp is not synchronized, so that there is a small but steady molt of about 50 to hairs a day from a total of around , follicles.
There is, nevertheless, evidence of seasonal fluctuation, with the greatest hair loss in late summer and fall. A follicle may continue its activity for a long time, and hairs sometimes grow for several years and attain considerable lengths.
Even in the human scalp—where the hair follicles are dense and vigorously productive—baldness occurs in a large number of individuals.
Baldness is not a disease but is a systematic involution of hair follicles, culminating in organs similar to the primitive embryonic follicles; the numbers of follicles do not necessarily diminish.
Until late in fetal life there is no line of demarcation between the forehead and scalp. After the fifth month of gestation the follicles in the rest of the scalp grow larger, but those of the forehead do not.
After birth the hairs on the forehead become even smaller and nearly invisible. The hairline of newborn infants is usually indistinct; the familial hairline pattern is defined late in childhood through a process that is identical with that of baldness.
When male-pattern baldness sets in, in the late 20s or earlier, the follicles affected undergo exactly the same changes as do those that establish the hairline.
Male-pattern baldness and its female equivalent, which is usually more diffuse, are hereditary conditions. In males this type of baldness is believed to arise from defects in the hair stem cells, which are located in the hair bulb and eventually mature into progenitor hair cells that then develop into mature hairs.
Paradoxically, since male hormones androgens stimulate the growth of most other hair, this type of baldness occurs only if androgens are present.
Hairs vary in colour, diameter, and contour. The different colours result from variations in the amount, distribution, and type of melanin pigment in them, as well as from variations in surface structure that cause light to be reflected in different ways.
Hairs may be coarse or so thin and colourless as to be nearly invisible. Straight hairs are round, while wavy hairs are alternately oval and round; very curly and kinky hairs are shaped like twisted ribbons.
Human hair grows at the rate of about one-third of a millimetre a day, and once keratinized it is inert. If the colour or shape of a hair is altered as it is formed, several days must elapse before the effect becomes visible.
Hairs become white with aging because of the failure of the melanocytes to inject pigment into the cells as they are formed.
Tales of hair becoming white overnight may perhaps arise from cases of rapid differential shedding of pigmented hairs from a mixed population of white and dark ones, but the suggestion that individual dark hairs can somehow rapidly turn white is not true.
The beard and mustache are the most obvious examples of hair that requires male sex hormones, or androgens, for its growth.
Facial hairs begin to develop at puberty , about two years after the start of pubic hair growth. The rate of growth of the beard initially increases with age but levels out after Hair on the chest—a traditional sign of masculinity—and that on the limbs are also androgen-dependent.
Androgens cause longer hairs to be formed, partly by making them grow faster, but mainly by increasing the length of anagen, the growing phase.
Fully formed hairs on the thigh are over three times longer in young men than in women; and the duration of anagen is around 54 days in males, compared with 22 days in females.
Pubic and axillary hair are also dependent on androgens, but they differ from other body hair in that they are luxuriant in females as well as in males.
Their growth requires lower levels of hormone. The lower triangle of pubic hair is present in persons with a rare disease known as male pseudohermaphroditism.
These individuals are genetic males who remain female in form until puberty because they lack an enzyme necessary to bind two atoms of hydrogen to the male hormone testosterone, which is responsible for male sex characteristics.
Since persons with male pseudohermaphroditism lack facial hair, even when adults, it seems that beard growth requires the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone but that pubic hair growth does not.
The sebaceous glands are usually attached to hair follicles and pour their secretion, sebum , into the follicular canal.
In a few areas of the body, disproportionately large sebaceous glands are associated with very small hair follicles; in other areas there are glands that are altogether free of follicles.
The outstanding feature of sebaceous glands is their holocrine mode of secretion, involving complete disintegration of the sebaceous cells.
The glands consist of a series of lobes, or acini, each with a duct running toward the main sebaceous duct. The cells are generated by cell division around the periphery of each lobe.
As they move toward the centre of the lobe and toward the duct, they synthesize and accumulate fat globules and become progressively larger and distorted.
Ultimately they disintegrate to form the secretion. Human sebum is a complex mixture of lipids—triglyceride fats The triglycerides are largely hydrolyzed by bacteria by the time the sebum reaches the skin surface, so that about a third of the surface fat consists of free fatty acids.
The activity of the sebaceous glands is mainly controlled by androgens. The glands are quite large at birth because of the influence of maternal hormones during development, but they regress soon afterward.
They become active again at, or somewhat in advance of, the first signs of puberty. Their rate of secretion is a little higher in adult men than in women, and it falls off gradually with age in both sexes.
It is very low in eunuchs castrated males but has been shown to increase when they are treated with androgens.
That other factors—for example, pituitary hormones—may also influence secretion is suggested by the observation that sebum production is abnormally high in acromegaly, a disorder resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone.
The function of sebum has been greatly debated. Some scientists have theorized that it is important as an emollient to prevent too rapid loss of water from the superficial layers of the stratum corneum; others have held that it is a functionless product of now useless, or vestigial, organs.
Yet humans have more and larger glands than most mammals, and there is a specific plan in their distribution: The skin around the nose, mouth, and forehead and over the cheekbones has beds of gigantic glands, the secretion of which keeps these surfaces constantly oily.
The sebaceous glands evenly spaced in rows at the border of the eyelids—the meibomian glands —are so large that they are easily seen with the naked eye when the eyelids are everted.
The glands on the genitalia produce copious amounts of sebaceous matter called smegma. Only humans have rich populations of sebaceous glands on the hairless surfaces of the lips; these glands increase in number and size as persons mature.
The inside of the cheeks also has many large sebaceous glands, and occasionally there are glands even on the gums and tongue.
It seems highly unlikely, then, that sebum is functionless. While its significance is certainly not established, it is possible that it is concerned with subtle chemical communication by smell or taste.
Such a function would bring human beings into line with other mammals. Sweat glands are coiled tubes of epidermal origin, though they lie in the dermis.
Their secretory cells surround a central space, or lumen, into which the secretion is extruded. There are two distinct types: Most other mammals have numerous apocrine glands in the hairy skin; eccrine glands are usually absent from the hairy skin and limited to friction surfaces.
In nonhuman primates there is a tendency for the number of eccrine sweat glands over the body to increase in progressively advanced animals at the same time that the number of apocrine glands becomes reduced.
Prosimians primitive primates, such as lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers have only apocrine glands in the hairy skin; eccrine glands begin to appear in some of the higher forms.
The great apes either have equal numbers or have more eccrine than apocrine glands. Humans have the most eccrine glands, with apocrine glands restricted to specific areas.
Strictly speaking, apocrine glands have nothing to do with sweating. Most of these rudiments disappear within a few weeks except in the external ear canals, in the axillae, on the nipples of the breasts, around the navel, and on the anogenital surfaces; single glands may be found anywhere.
From this, one might speculate that the ancestors of humans had apocrine glands widely distributed over the body, and the embryonic rudiments may be reminders of the history of a once widespread organ system.
Where they appear, the apocrine glands are large and numerous. In the axilla they are so large that the coils press upon each other, forming adhesions and cross-shunts of such complexity that the glands are more spongy than tubular.
The complex of these large apocrine glands commingled with an equal number of eccrine sweat glands in the axilla composes what is known as the axillary organ, one of the most characteristic features of human skin.
Other than humans, only chimpanzees and gorillas have axillary organs. In spite of their large size, apocrine glands secrete only small amounts of a milky, viscid fluid—pale gray, whitish, yellow, or reddish—which contributes very little to axillary sweat.
If eccrine glands were not there, the axillae would be relatively dry. The odour of axillary secretion becomes more intense as it is decomposed by bacteria.
Although axillary odours frequently seem unpleasant, they are not invariably so. The odour of individual human beings comes mostly from apocrine secretion, with some contribution from sebum.
Since the body odours of all other animals have a social or sexual significance, it can be assumed that this is the archetypal purpose of apocrine secretion, even in humans.
The view that the axillary organs are scent glands is supported by the finding that androsterones—the compounds that are responsible for the odour of the boar to which the sow responds—also occur in human axillary secretions.
Humans have 2,, to 5,, eccrine sweat glands, with an average distribution of to per square centimetre. They are most numerous on the palms and soles and then, in decreasing order, on the head, trunk, and extremities.
Some individuals have more glands than others, but there is no difference in number between men and women.
The specific function of sweat glands is to secrete water upon the surface so that it can cool the skin when it evaporates. The purpose of the glands on the palms and soles, however, is to keep these surfaces damp, to prevent flaking or hardening of the horny layer, and thus to maintain tactile sensibility.
A dry hand does not grip well and is minimally sensitive. The eccrine glands, then, can be divided into those that respond to thermal stimulation, the function of which is thermoregulation, and those that respond to psychological stimuli and keep friction surfaces moist.
This makes a clear-cut distinction between the glands on the hairy surfaces and those on the palms and soles. In addition to thermal and psychological sweating, some individuals sweat on the face and forehead in response to certain chemical substances.
This separation of events over time may represent a fundamental difference in the evolutionary history of the two types of glands. Those on palms and soles, which appear first and are present in all but the hooved mammals, may be more ancient; those in the hairy skin, which respond to thermal stimuli, may be more recent organs.
The sweat glands in the hairy skin of subhuman primates possibly function subliminally, although they are structurally similar to those of humans.
The skin of monkeys and apes remains dry even in a hot environment. Profuse thermal sweating in humans, then, seems to be a new function. Eccrine sweat glands respond to a variety of drugs with different properties.
They often respond differently in different individuals under nearly identical conditions and sometimes even respond inconsistently in the same individual.
Notwithstanding these apparent vagaries, the eccrine glands function continuously, although their secretion may be imperceptible. Sweating is essential for keeping the human body from becoming overheated.
A major characteristic of primates is that their fingers and toes terminate in nails rather than in claws. One can speculate that the development of nails into flattened plates reflects the discontinuation of their use for digging or for defending and attacking.
In a broad sense, nails are analogous to hair, having similar composition keratin and some common structural features.
Even their genesis and mode of growth are comparable, but not identical, to those of hair. Although apparently simple structures, nails are formed by complex and still poorly understood structural entities referred to as nail organs.
Nails grow about 0. Growth is somewhat slower in winter than in summer and slower in infants and old people than in vigorous young adults.
It requires about three months for a whole nail to replace itself. A number of factors can alter normal nail growth, among them age, trauma, poisons, and organic disorders.
Habitual nail biting speeds up growth, and certain occupational practices can cause an increase in thickness. The nail-forming organ is particularly sensitive to physiological changes.
During stressful periods or prolonged fever, or in response to noxious drugs, nails may become cracked, thinner, thicker, furrowed, or otherwise deformed, or they may be shed.
Such sensitivity of response should make nails relatively good indexes of the health of individuals. But because of their ready response to so many internal and external factors, and because changes in them often occur without a known reason, signs of abnormality can be misleading or difficult to interpret.
Like hair, the visible part of the nail plate is a dead structure. Defects inflicted upon it by mechanical means that do not disturb the underlying living tissue are eventually cast off at the free border.
Nails have a root, buried beneath the skin; a plate that is firmly attached to a nail bed underneath; and a free edge. Depending upon its thickness and the quality of its surface, the nail plate may be pink or whitish; the nail itself is translucent and colourless, allowing the colour of the blood in the superficial capillaries of the nail bed to show through.
At its base the nail plate may have a whitish, arched marking called a lunule. Always present on thumbnails, lunules may be present or absent on the other fingers and are nearly always absent on the little finger.
There are variations in different individuals and even between the two hands of the same person; such variations are probably controlled by genetic factors.
The nail itself consists of firmly cemented keratinized cells, flattened horizontally to the surface. Whereas the surface of nail plates may appear to be smooth, it is lined by parallel, longitudinal furrows, more strongly etched in some persons than in others and typically more prominent in the aged.
These markings have some correspondence to the more pronounced grooves and ridges on the undersurface of the plate. Nails grow from a matrix at the base of the nail root.
During the early part of their journey, matrix cells multiply and move forward, synthesizing keratin, underneath the fold of skin eponychium at the base of the nail.
Once exposed to the surface, the nail is fully formed. The nail plate seems to glide over the nail bed, but it is firmly attached to it; the entire tissue, nail bed and plate, most likely moves forward as a unit.
The nail bed has often been called sterile matrix, since it adds little or nothing to the nail plate. Yet under certain pathologic conditions, it assumes keratinizing activities that result in a variably thickened or deformed nail plate.
Although less effective than claws for digging or gouging, the flattened nail is still an excellent adaptation that has added much to the development of manipulative skills.
Nails not only protect the tips of fingers but also give them firmness and the ability to pick up or make contact with minute objects.
Claws would be useless for such functions. The skin has both free nerve endings and so-called corpuscular endings, which include nonnervous elements.
The corpuscular endings are further differentiated as encapsulated or nonencapsulated receptors. Free nerve endings occur in the epidermis, in the superficial dermis, where they are arranged in tufts, and in hair follicles.
Merkel cells, which are found in the basal layer of the epidermis, are an example of nonencapsulated corpuscular receptors.
The most striking example of an encapsulated receptor is the Pacinian corpuscle, an ovoid structure that is about one millimetre in length and lamellated in section, like an onion; these receptors can be found deep in the dermis.
Various other dermal sense organs—for example, Golgi-Mazzoni corpuscles, Krause end bulbs, Meissner corpuscles, and Ruffini endings—have also been described.
It can easily be demonstrated that touch, cold, warmth, and pain are each perceived in separate points on the skin surface.
The various end organs were at one time, therefore, somewhat arbitrarily assigned as monitors of one or another of these qualities.
A difficulty was that many of the receptors are present only in glabrous skin, even though hairy skin in similarly perceptive.
These earlier ideas were undoubtedly too simple, but electrophysiologists have confirmed the view that the various end organs respond to specific stimuli.
The functional existence of mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, and pain receptors has been established, though only some of these can be identified with classical end organs.
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Help us improve this article!The book fleshes out all the characters including the ones who never appear in the movietheir histories, and their complicated relationships. Soon Ingram and his wife are nearly overside with the killer's other victims! Her eyes are very blue, slightly slanted, and there is a point to her chin - an intelligent, slightly mischievous face. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. Ich fand schon immer alles Klasse von ihnen, aber das ist der Oberhammer!!! Can he really be blamed for what goes wrong? The characters here and how they relate to each other are extremely complicated. Take a human, make her into a perfect tool to observe humanity from the Aneka became the only survivor on a dead ship marooned in deep space. They yet do possess great playing ability and their brand of brutal fast paced deathgore metal shall delight lots of fans of both brutal death metal and cool grind core and this release which is the re-edition of the album launched by Razorback some three years ago does possess all the qualities of their previous outings. But if she's never experienced an actual haunting, and has no obvious telekinetic powers, she says she spends a lot of time listening out for "different, quieter voices".